4 5 Substance Use and Abuse Psychology 2e

physiological and psychological dependence

This can lead to people compulsively using stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines, in part to try to reestablish the person’s physical and psychological pre-use baseline. Although young people are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of substance use, not all adolescents who experiment with alcohol or drugs go on to develop a substance use disorder. Studies that follow groups of adolescents over time to learn about the developing human brain should be conducted. These studies should investigate how pre-existing neurobiological factors contribute to substance use, misuse, and addiction, and how adolescent substance use affects brain function and behavior.

Conducting Research on the Neurobiology of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction

Substance abuse disorder is considered mild in the presence of two or three criteria. In the presence of six or more symptoms, substance use disorder is considered severe. Because repeated use of a psychoactive substance often creates the motivation for further use, substance abuse is seen as a self-perpetuating disorder and considered to have a high potential for progression. Physical dependence is primarily characterized by the physiological changes that occur in the body due to repeated drug use. These changes often lead to the development of tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect.

physiological and psychological dependence


In contrast, a person who has psychological dependence has an emotional, rather than physical, need for the drug and may use the drug to relieve psychological distress. Tolerance is linked to physiological dependence, and it occurs when a person requires more and more drug to achieve effects previously experienced at lower doses. Tolerance physiological dependence on alcohol can cause the user to increase the amount of drug used to a dangerous level—even to the point of overdose and death. Physical dependence, as explained by the Sana Lake Recovery Center, is characterized by tolerance and withdrawal. It means that the body has developed a need for a particular substance in order to function normally.

physiological and psychological dependence

Alcohol dependence

In addition, some studies suggest that health behaviour change and mental health share common predictors, such as self-efficacy, self-control, and emotion regulation (Paxton et al., 2010; Aparicio et al., 2016; Gilbert et al., 2022). Relatedly, the observed magnitudes of effect for alcohol and tobacco use were large, especially considering https://ecosoberhouse.com/article/writing-a-goodbye-letter-to-alcohol/ the thresholds for endorsing use were small (at least one full standard drink or puff of a cigarette in the prior 6 months). It is unlikely that that these observed associations are wholly due to direct causal impacts of alcohol or tobacco use on psychological distress (through social, biological, or neurological mechanisms).

physiological and psychological dependence

  • Addiction involves both the mind and the body—and every other facet of existence, because they all interact.
  • The experience of trauma, whether it be physical, emotional, or psychological, can lead to a higher risk of developing an addiction.
  • Professionals in the field of addiction treatment understand the complexity of dependence and are equipped with the knowledge and expertise to develop personalized treatment plans tailored to each individual’s specific needs.
  • As detailed in methods, informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
  • Tobacco measurement used an item from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), whereby participants reported whether they had smoked a cigarette (‘even one or two puffs’) in the last 6 months (Brener et al., 2013).

Brain Function Alterations and Addiction

Genetic factors

  • Problems are rated on a scale of 1 to 5 by domain, reflecting how bothered a person is by problems of that type.
  • SS developed the methodology and conducted formal analysis with support from SO.
  • On the other hand, psychological dependence revolves around the emotional reliance on a substance to cope with stress, anxiety, or other emotional states.
  • The opioid crisis is so bad that the U.S. government declared a public health emergency.
  • Physical dependence is primarily characterized by the physiological changes that occur in the body due to repeated drug use.

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